A review of the Apocreadiidae Skrjabin, 1942 (Trematoda: Digenea) and description of Australian species
The Apocreadiidae is reviewed and is considered to include genera recognised previously within the families Apocreadiidae, Homalometridae, Schistorchiidae, Sphincterostomatidae and Trematobrienidae. Key features of the family are extensive vitelline follicles, eye-spot pigment dispersed in forebody, I-shaped excretory vesicle, no cirrus-sac and genital pore opening immediately anterior to the ventral sucker (usually) or immediately posterior to it (Postporus Manter, 1949). Three subfamilies and 18 genera are recognised within the Apocreadiidae. The Apocreadiinae comprises Homalometron Stafford, 1904 (new syn. Barbulostomum Ramsey, 1965), Callohelmis n. g., Choanodera Manter, 1940, Crassicutis Manter, 1936, Dactylotrema Bravo-Hollis & Manter, 1957, Marsupioacetabulum Yamaguti, 1952, Microcreadium Simer, 1929, Myzotus Manter, 1940, Neoapocreadium Siddiqi & Cable, 1960, Neomegasolena Siddiqi & Cable, 1960, Pancreadium Manter, 1954, Procaudotestis Szidat, 1954 and Trematobrien Dollfus, 1950. The Schistorchiinae comprises Schistorchis Lühe, 1906, Sphincterostoma Yamaguti, 1937, Sphincteristomum Oshmarin, Mamaev & Parukhin, 1961 and Megacreadium Nagaty, 1956. The Postporinae comprises only Postporus. A key to subfamilies and genera of the Apocreadiidae is provided. It is argued that there is no convincing basis for the recognition of the genus Apocreadium Manter, 1937 and all its constituent species are combined with Homalometron. The following new combinations are proposed for species previously recognised within Apocreadium: Homalometron balistis (Manter, 1947), H. caballeroi (Bravo-Hollis, 1953), H. cryptum (Overstreet, 1969), H. longisinosum (Manter, 1937), H. manteri (Overstreet, 1970), H. mexicanum (Manter, 1937) and H. vinodae (Ahmad, 1985). Apocreadium uroproctoferum Sogandares-Bernal, 1959 is found to lack a uroproct and is made a synonym of H. mexicanum. Homalometron verrunculi nom. nov. is proposed to replace the secondarily pre-occupied H. caballeroi Lamothe-Argumedo, 1965. Barbulostomum is made a synonym of Homalometron and H. cupuloris (Ramsey, 1965) n. comb. is proposed. Neochoanodera is made a synonym of Choanodera and Choanodera ghanensis (Fischthal & Thomas, 1970) n. comb. is proposed. Species within the Apocreadiinae and Postporinae are reviewed and the following are recorded or described from Australian fishes: Homalometron wrightae n. sp. from Achlyopa nigra (Macleay), H. synagris (Yamaguti, 1953) n. comb. from Scolopsis monogramma (Cuvier), H. stradbrokensis n. sp. from Gerres subfasciatus Cuvier, Marsupioacetabulum opallioderma n. sp. from G. subfasciatus, Neoapocreadium karwarensis (Hafeezullah, 1970) n. comb. from G. subfasciatus, N. splendens n. sp. from S. monogramma and Callohelmis pichelinae n. g., n. sp. from Hemigymnus melapterus (Bloch), H. fasciatus (Bloch), Stethojulis bandanensis (Bleeker) andChoerodon venustus (De Vis). Callohelmis is recognised by the combination of absence of tegumental spines, caeca terminating midway between the testes and posterior end of body, ventral sucker enclosed in a tegumental pouch, prominent muscles radiating through the body from the ventral sucker, vitelline follicles not extending into the forebody, and a very short excretory vesicle that opens ventrally. New combinations for species previously recognised within Crassicutis are proposed as follows: Neoapocreadium caranxi (Bilqees, 1976) n. comb., N. gerridis (Nahhas & Cable, 1964) n. comb., N. imtiazi (Ahmad, 1984) n. comb. and N. marina (Manter, 1947) n. comb. The host-specificity and zoogeography of the Apocreadiinae are considered.