Several type series of unusual and poorly known genera of Syllidae have been examined. New diagnoses for the following genera and re-descriptions of their type species are provided: Anguillosyllis, Clavisyllis, Lamellisyllis and Nuchalosyllis; Brachysyllis, previously synonymized with Dioplosyllis, is herein considered to be a valid taxon. The species Brachysyllis infuscata is also re-described. Three genera are considered to be non-valid taxa: Braniella, synonymous with Anguillosyllis; Alluaudella, synonymous with Odontosyllis; and Exogonella, synonymous with Parexogone. Their type species herein are re-described and assigned to their corresponding valid genus. Finally, Exogonoides is considered nomina dubia since its relationships with other syllids could not be established. Keys to species of Anguillosyllis and Brachysyllis are also included.