Phylogeny of Hesionidae (Aciculata, Polychaeta), assessed from morphology, 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA
16S rDNA and COI. Zoologica Scripta
Ruta, C., Nygren, A., Rousset, V., Sundberg, P., Tillier, A., Wiklund, H. & Pleijel, F. (2007). Phylogeny of Hesionidae (Aciculata, Polychaeta), assessed from morphology, 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI. - Zoologica Scripta, 36, 99-107. We assess phylogenetic relationships within the polychaete family Hesionidae from morphological data combined with nucleotide data from 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses were performed on two data sets; the first was based on a more restricted set of terminals with both morphological and molecular data (17 ingroup terminals), while the second included additional taxa with morphological data only (25 ingroup terminals). The different sets of terminals yielded fully congruent results, as did the parsimony and the Bayesian analyses. Our results indicate high levels of homoplasy in traditionally used morphological characters in the group, and that Hesioninae, Gyptini and Gyptis are nonmonophyletic. Hesionini (mainly Hesione and Leocrates), Psamathini (mainly Hesiospina, Micropodarke, Nereimyra, Psamathe and Syllidia), Ophiodrominae (Gyptini and Ophiodromini) and Ophiodromini (mainly Heteropodarke, Ophiodromus and Podarkeopsis) are monophyletic and agree with previous classifications, and Hesionini is probably the sister to all other hesionids. The placements of the small hesionids capricornia and Lizardia, the hydrothermal vent taxa Hesiodeira and Hesiolyra, and the newly described Hesiobranchia, remain uncertain.