Robison, B.H., 2004. Deep pelagic biology. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 300 1-2: 253-272.
The deep pelagic habitat is a vast volume of cold, dark water where food is scarce and bioluminescence is the principal source of light and communication. Understanding the adaptations that allow animals to successfully inhabit this daunting realm has been a difficult challenge because investigators have had to conduct their work remotely. Research in the deep water column is going through an essential transformation from indirect to direct methods as undersea vehicles provide unprecedented access, new capabilities, and new perspectives. Traditional methods have accurately documented the meso- and macro-scale zoogeographic patterns of micronekton and zooplankton, as well as their distribution and migration patterns in the vertical plane. The new in situ technologies have enabled advances in studies of behavior, physiology, and in particular, the role of gelatinous animals in deep pelagic ecology. These discoveries reveal a deep-water fauna that is complex and diverse and still very poorly known.