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Phillips, L.M., R.I. Leihy & S.L. Chown. (2022). Improving species‐based area protection in Antarctica. Conservation Biology. 36(4): e13885.Aug 2022.
10.1111/cobi.13885 [view]
Phillips, L.M., R.I. Leihy & S.L. Chown
Improving species‐based area protection in Antarctica.
Conservation Biology
36(4): e13885.Aug 2022
Area protection is a major mechanism deployed for environmental conservation in Antarctica. Yet, the Antarctic protected areas network is widely acknowledged as inadequate, in part because the criteria for area protection south of 60°S are not fully applied. The most poorly explored of these criteria is the type locality of species, which provides the primary legal means for Antarctic species-based area protection and a method for conserving species even if little is known about their habitat or distribution. The type locality criterion has not been systematically assessed since its incorporation into the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty in 1991, so the extent to which the criterion is being met or might be useful for area protection is largely unknown. To address the matter, we created and analyzed a comprehensive database of Antarctic type localities of terrestrial and lacustrine lichens, plants, and animals. We compiled the database via a literature search of key taxonomic and geographic terms and then analyzed the distance between type localities identifiable to a ≤ 25km2 resolution and current Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPAs) and human infrastructure. We used a distance-clustering approach for localities outside current ASPAs to determine candidate protected areas that could contain these unprotected localities. Of the 386 type localities analyzed, 108 were within or overlapped current ASPAs. Inclusion of the remaining 278 type localities in the ASPA network would require the designation of a further 105 protected areas. Twenty-four of these areas included human infrastructure disturbance. Given the slow rate of ASPA designation, growing pace of human impacts on the continent, and the management burden associated with ASPAs, we propose ways in which the type locality criterion might best be deployed. These include a comprehensive, systematic conservation planning approach and an alternative emphasis on the habitat of species, rather than on a single locality.
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2022-08-01 13:49:12Z
2023-04-03 13:43:15Z

Absconditella antarctica Søchting & Vězda, 2004 (additional source)
Acarospora austroshetlandica (C.W. Dodge) Øvstedal, 2001 (additional source)
Acarospora badiofusca (Nyl.) Th. Fr., 1860 (additional source)
Acarospora convoluta Darb., 1912 (additional source)
Acarospora flavocordia Castello & Nimis, 1994 (additional source)
Acarospora gwynnii C.W. Dodge & E.D. Rudolph, 1955 (additional source)
Acarospora macrocyclos Vain., 1903 (additional source)
Acarospora nitrophila H. Magn., 1924 (additional source)
Acarospora veronensis A. Massal., 1852 (additional source)
Acarospora wahlenbergii H. Magn., 1929 (additional source)
Acarospora williamsii Filson, 1966 (additional source)
Acarus siro Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Acrobeloides arctowskii Holovachov & Boström, 2006 (additional source)
Actornithophilus pauliani Séguy, 1953 (additional source)
Acutuncus antarcticus (Richters, 1904) (additional source)
Adineta barbata Janson, 1893 (additional source)
Adineta coatsi Iakovenko, Smykla, Convey, Kasparona, Kozeretska, Trokhymets, Dykyy, Plewka, Devetter & Janko, 2015 (additional source)
Adineta editae Iakovenko, 2015 (additional source)
Adineta emsliei Iakovenko, Smykla, Convey, Kasparona, Kozeretska, Trokhymets, Dykyy, Plewka, Devetter & Janko, 2015 (additional source)
Adineta fontanetoi Iakovenko, Smykla, Convey, Kasparona, Kozeretska, Trokhymets, Dykyy, Plewka, Devetter & Janko, 2015 (additional source)
Adineta gracilis Janson, 1893 (additional source)
Adineta grandis Murray, 1910 (additional source)
Adineta longicornis Murray, 1906 (additional source)
Adineta steineri Bartoš, 1951 (additional source)
Adineta vaga (Davis, 1873) (additional source)
Adropion greveni (Dastych, 1984) (additional source)
Adropion mauccii (Dastych & McInnes, 1996) (additional source)
Adropion scoticum (Murray, 1905) (additional source)
Adropion tricuspidatum (Binda & Pilato, 2000) accepted as Kararehius tricuspidatum (Binda & Pilato, 2000) (additional source)
Aglenchus agricola (de Man, 1884) Andrássy, 1954 (additional source)
Agonimia gelatinosa (Ach.) M. Brand & Diederich, 1999 (additional source)
Alaskozetes antarcticus (Michael, 1903) (additional source)
Alectoria nigricans (Ach.) Nyl., 1861 (additional source)
Alloparasitus oblonga (Halbert, 1915) (basis of record)
Alloptes aschizurus Gaud, 1952 (basis of record)
Alloptes catharacti Mironov, 1991 (additional source)
Alloptes chionis Atyeo & Petersen, 1967 (basis of record)
Alloptes crassipes (Canestrini, 1878) (additional source)
Alloptes obtusulobus Dubinin, 1951 (basis of record)
Alloptes stercorarii Dubinin, 1952 (basis of record)
Aloina brevirostris Kindberg, 1883 (additional source)
Amandinea augusta (Vain.) Søchting & Øvstedal, 2004 (additional source)
Amandinea babingtonii (Hook. f. & Taylor) Søchting & Øvstedal, 2004 (additional source)
Amandinea clearyi Elix & Øvstedal, 2020 (additional source)
Amandinea coniops (Wahlenb.) M. Choisy ex Scheid. & H. Mayrhofer, 1993 (additional source)
Amandinea falklandica (Darb.) Elix & Kantvilas, 2013 (additional source)
Amandinea isabellina Søchting & Øvstedal, 2004 (additional source)
Amandinea latemarginata (Darb.) Søchting & Øvstedal, 2004 (additional source)
Amandinea petermannii (Hue) Matzer, H. Mayrhofer & Scheid., 1994 (additional source)
Amandinea punctata (Hoffm.) Coppins & Scheid., 1993 (additional source)
Amandinea windmillensis Elix, 2019 (additional source)
Amblydorylaimus isokaryon (Loof, 1975) Andrássy, 1998 (additional source)
Amphidium lapponicum (Hedw., 1801) W.P. Schimper, 1856 (additional source)
Amundsenia approximata (Lynge) Søchting, Arup & Frödén, 2014 (additional source)
Amundsenia austrocontinentalis Garrido-Ben., Søchting, Pérez-Ort. & Seppelt, 2014 (additional source)
Ancistrona fagelli (Fabricius, 1787) (additional source)
Andreaea depressinervis Cardot (additional source)
Andreaea gainii Cardot (additional source)
Andreaea regularis Müll.Hal. (additional source)
Antarctenchus hooperi Spaull, 1972 (additional source)
Antarctenchus motililus Ghosh, Chatterjee, Mitra & De, 2005 (additional source)
Antarcticinella monoculata Salmon, 1965 (additional source)
Antarcticola meyeri Wallwork, 1967 (basis of record)
Antarctophorus subpolaris (Salmon, 1962) (additional source)
Antarctophthirus carlinii Leonardi, Poljak, Carlini, Galliari, Bobinac, Santos, Marquez & Negrete, 2014 (basis of record)
Antarctophthirus lobodontis Enderlein, 1909 (additional source)
Antarctophthirus mawsoni Harrison, 1937 (additional source)
Antarctophthirus ogmorhini Enderlein, 1906 (additional source)
Anthelia juratzkana (Limpr.) Trevis. (additional source)
Anzina carneonivea (Anzi) Scheid., 1982 (additional source)
Aphelenchoides baguei Maslen, 1979 (additional source)
Aphelenchoides vaughani Maslen, 1979 (additional source)
Aphrodroma brevirostris (Lesson, 1831) (additional source)
Apotriophtydeus penola Usher & Edwards, 1986 (basis of record)
Apotriophtydeus scotia Usher & Edwards, 1986 (basis of record)
Apotriophtydeus terror Usher & Edwards, 1986 (basis of record)
Apratylenchoides joenssoni Ryss, Boström & Sohlenius, 2005 (additional source)
Aptenodytes forsteri Gray, 1844 (additional source)
Aptenodytes patagonicus Miller, 1778 (additional source)
Archisotoma brucei (Carptenter, 1907) (additional source)
Arctocephalus gazella (Peters, 1875) (additional source)
Arthonia epiphyscia Nyl., 1875 accepted as Bryostigma epiphyscium (Nyl.) S.Y. Kondr. & Hur, 2020 (additional source)
Arthonia fuscopurpurea (Tul.) R. Sant., 1960 (additional source)
Arthonia glebosa Tuck., 1872 (additional source)
Arthonia lapidicola (Taylor) Branth & Rostr., 1869 accepted as Bryostigma lapidicola (Taylor) S.Y. Kondr. & Hur., 2020 (additional source)
Arthonia molendoi (Heufl. ex Arnold) R. Sant., 1986 accepted as Bryostigma molendoi (Heufl. ex Arnold) S.Y. Kondr. & Hur., 2020 (additional source)
Arthonia rufidula (Hue) D. Hawksw., R. Sant. & Øvstedal, 1991 (additional source)
Arthonia subantarctica Øvstedal, 1986 (additional source)
Arthopyrenia maritima Øvstedal, 1986 (additional source)
Arthopyrenia praetermissa D.C. Linds., 1975 (additional source)
Arthothelium evanescens Øvstedal, 2001 (additional source)
Arthrorhaphis alpina (Schaer.) R. Sant., 1980 (additional source)
Arthrorhaphis citrinella (Ach.) Poelt, 1969 (additional source)
Aspicilia aquatica (Fr.) Körb., 1855 (additional source)
Athallia holocarpa (Hoffm.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting, 2013 (additional source)
Austrogoniodes antarcticus Harrison, 1937 (additional source)
Austrogoniodes bifasciatus (Piaget, 1885) (additional source)
Austrogoniodes cristati Kéler, 1952 (additional source)
Austrogoniodes gressitti Clay, 1967 (additional source)
Austrogoniodes keleri Clay, 1967 (additional source)
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