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Hooper, J.N.A. (2002). Family Acarnidae Dendy, 1922. pp. 412-431. In: Hooper, J.N.A. & Van Soest, R.W.M. (eds.) Systema Porifera. Guide to the classification of sponges. Volume 1 (Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers: New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow).
9013
Hooper, J.N.A.
2002
Family Acarnidae Dendy, 1922. pp. 412-431. <i>In</i>: Hooper, J.N.A. & Van Soest, R.W.M. (eds.) Systema Porifera. Guide to the classification of sponges. Volume 1 (Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers: New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow).
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Please note that the pdf supplied here is NOT the definitive printed text of the chapter in the published volume of the Systema Porifera.
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Acarnidae Dendy (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida, Microcionina) contains 37 nominal genera of which 13 are considered here to be valid, and probably several hundreds of species. Acarnids are distributed worldwide, although several genera are predominant in colder temperate waters, and several have very restricted (apparently endemic) geographic ranges. Major morphological characters diagnostic for the family include massive, burrowing, excavating or encrusting growth forms with fistules, as well as non-fistulose genera with digitate, flabellate, massive or encrusting growth forms; ectosomal skeleton with tangentially arranged tylotes with spined bases; choanosomal skeleton reticulate (in massive) or plumose (in encrusting growth forms), with or without echinating spicules; megascleres include styles; and microscleres are palmate isochelae and toxas, sometimes lost or sometimes with other microscleres such as bipocillae, modified anisochelae, microrhabds and raphides.
Systematics, Taxonomy
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
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2018-07-31 07:06:42Z
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2021-04-18 13:57:37Z
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Acanthorhabdus Burton, 1929 (basis of record)
Acarnidae Dendy, 1922 (basis of record)
Acheliderma Topsent, 1892 (basis of record)
Dolichacantha Hentschel, 1914 (basis of record)
Iophon Gray, 1867 (basis of record)
Iophonidae Burton, 1929 accepted as Acarnidae Dendy, 1922 (basis of record)
Megaciella Hallmann, 1920 (basis of record)
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