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WoRMS taxon details

Leptogorgia Milne Edwards, 1857

125302  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:125302)

accepted
Genus
Gorgonia viminalis Pallas, 1766 accepted as Leptogorgia viminalis (Pallas, 1766) (type by subsequent designation)
Asperogorgia Stiasny, 1943 · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Gorgonia (Litigorgia) Verrill, 1868 · unaccepted (changed combination)
Litigorgia Verrill, 1868 · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Lophogorgia Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857 · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym

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  1. Species Leptogorgia acuta Bielschowsky, 1918
  2. Species Leptogorgia aequatorialis Bielschowsky in Kükenthal, 1919
  3. Species Leptogorgia alba (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864)
  4. Species Leptogorgia albipunctata Stiasny, 1936
  5. Species Leptogorgia annobonensis Grasshoff, 1992
  6. Species Leptogorgia arbuscula (Philippi, 1866)
  7. Species Leptogorgia aureoflavescens Grasshoff, 1988
  8. Species Leptogorgia barbadensis (Bayer, 1961)
  9. Species Leptogorgia barnardi Stiasny, 1940
  10. Species Leptogorgia bayeri Williams & Lindo, 1997
  11. Species Leptogorgia californica (Verrill, 1868)
  12. Species Leptogorgia capensis (Hickson, 1900)
  13. Species Leptogorgia capverdensis (Grasshoff, 1986)
  14. Species Leptogorgia cardinalis (Bayer, 1961)
  15. Species Leptogorgia chilensis Verrill, 1868
  16. Species Leptogorgia christiae Guzman & Breedy, 2008
  17. Species Leptogorgia clavata (Horn, 1861)
  18. Species Leptogorgia cofrini Breedy & Guzman, 2005
  19. Species Leptogorgia contorta Kükenthal, 1919
  20. Species Leptogorgia cortesi Breedy & Guzman, 2012
  21. Species Leptogorgia cuspidata Verrill, 1865
  22. Species Leptogorgia dakarensis Stiasny, 1939
  23. Species Leptogorgia dichotoma Verrill, 1870
  24. Species Leptogorgia diffusa (Verrill, 1868)
  25. Species Leptogorgia dubia Kükenthal, 1924
  26. Species Leptogorgia ena Breedy, Abeytia & Guzman, 2012
  27. Species Leptogorgia enrici Hernández, Gómez-Gutiérrez & Sánchez, 2021
  28. Species Leptogorgia esperi Verrill, 1869
  29. Species Leptogorgia euryale (Bayer, 1952)
  30. Species Leptogorgia exigua Verrill, 1870
  31. Species Leptogorgia fasciculata Bielschowsky, 1918
  32. Species Leptogorgia festiva (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860)
  33. Species Leptogorgia filicrispa Horvath, 2011
  34. Species Leptogorgia flexilis (Verrill, 1868)
  35. Species Leptogorgia florae (Verrill, 1868)
  36. Species Leptogorgia floridana Verrill, 1869
  37. Species Leptogorgia fruticosa Hickson, 1928
  38. Species Leptogorgia fuscopunctata (W. Koch, 1886)
  39. Species Leptogorgia gaini (Stiasny, 1940)
  40. Species Leptogorgia gilchristi (Hickson, 1904)
  41. Species Leptogorgia hebes Verrill, 1869
  42. Species Leptogorgia ignita Breedy & Guzman, 2008
  43. Species Leptogorgia iridis Hernández, Gómez-Gutiérrez & Sánchez, 2021
  44. Species Leptogorgia labiata Verrill, 1870
  45. Species Leptogorgia laxa Hickson, 1928
  46. Species Leptogorgia lutkeni (Wright & Studer, 1889)
  47. Species Leptogorgia manabiensis Soler-Hurtado, Megina, Machordom & López-González, 2017
  48. Species Leptogorgia mariarosae Soler-Hurtado & López-González, 2012
  49. Species Leptogorgia martirensis Hernández, Gómez-Gutiérrez & Sánchez, 2021
  50. Species Leptogorgia medusa (Bayer, 1952)
  51. Species Leptogorgia miniata (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857)
  52. Species Leptogorgia multifida (Verrill, 1870)
  53. Species Leptogorgia mutabilis (Breedy, Williams & Guzman, 2013)
  54. Species Leptogorgia nobilis (Verrill, 1868)
  55. Species Leptogorgia obscura Bielschowsky in Kükenthal, 1919
  56. Species Leptogorgia palma (Pallas, 1766)
  57. Species Leptogorgia parva Bielschowsky in Kükenthal, 1919
  58. Species Leptogorgia peruviana (Verrill, 1868)
  59. Species Leptogorgia piccola Grasshoff, 1988
  60. Species Leptogorgia pinnata (Linnaeus, 1758)
  61. Species Leptogorgia porosissima Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857
  62. Species Leptogorgia principensis Grasshoff, 1992
  63. Species Leptogorgia pseudogracilis Castro, Medeiros & Loiola, 2010
  64. Species Leptogorgia pulcherrima Bielschowsky in Kükenthal, 1919
  65. Species Leptogorgia pumila (Verrill, 1868)
  66. Species Leptogorgia punicea (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857)
  67. Species Leptogorgia purpurea (Pallas, 1766)
  68. Species Leptogorgia purpureoviolacea (Stiasny, 1936)
  69. Species Leptogorgia pusilla Kükenthal, 1919
  70. Species Leptogorgia querciformis (Bielschowsky, 1918)
  71. Species Leptogorgia ramulus (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857)
  72. Species Leptogorgia rathbunii Verrill, 1912
  73. Species Leptogorgia regis Hickson, 1928
  74. Species Leptogorgia rigida Verrill, 1864
  75. Species Leptogorgia ruberrima (W. Koch, 1886)
  76. Species Leptogorgia rubra Bielschowsky, 1918
  77. Species Leptogorgia rubroflavescens Stiasny, 1937
  78. Species Leptogorgia rubropurpurea Verrill, 1912
  79. Species Leptogorgia saharensis Stiasny, 1939
  80. Species Leptogorgia sanguinea (Lamarck, 1815)
  81. Species Leptogorgia sarmentosa (Esper, 1791)
  82. Species Leptogorgia setacea (Pallas, 1766)
  83. Species Leptogorgia stheno (Bayer, 1952)
  84. Species Leptogorgia styx Bayer, 2000
  85. Species Leptogorgia sulfurea Bielschowsky, 1918
  86. Species Leptogorgia sylvanae Stiasny, 1940
  87. Species Leptogorgia taboguillae (Hickson, 1928)
  88. Species Leptogorgia tenuis Verrill, 1870
  89. Species Leptogorgia tenuissima Kükenthal, 1919
  90. Species Leptogorgia thomassini (Tixier-Durivault, 1972)
  91. Species Leptogorgia tricorata Breedy & Cortés, 2011
  92. Species Leptogorgia varians (W. Koch, 1886)
  93. Species Leptogorgia viminalis (Pallas, 1766)
  94. Species Leptogorgia violacea (Pallas, 1766)
  95. Species Leptogorgia violetta Grasshoff, 1988
  96. Species Leptogorgia virgea (Valenciennes, 1855)
  97. Species Leptogorgia virgulata (Lamarck, 1815)
  98. Species Leptogorgia waltonae Olvera, Hernández, Sánchez & Gómez-Gutiérrez, 2018
  99. Species Leptogorgia abietina Kükenthal, 1919 accepted as Leptogorgia gilchristi (Hickson, 1904) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  100. Species Leptogorgia adamsii (Verrill, 1868) accepted as Pacifigorgia adamsii (Verrill, 1868) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  101. Species Leptogorgia aequatorialis Bielschowsky, 1918 (unaccepted > nomen nudum, described in Kükenthal, 1919)
  102. Species Leptogorgia africana J.S. Thomson, 1916 accepted as Leptogorgia gilchristi (Hickson, 1904) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  103. Species Leptogorgia africana (Kükenthal, 1919) accepted as Filigorgia angolana (Grasshoff, 1992) (unaccepted > junior homonym, of Leptogorgia africana J.S. Thomson, 1917)
  104. Species Leptogorgia agassizi Verrill, 1868 accepted as Pacifigorgia agassizii (Verrill, 1864) (misspelled, incorrect date of authority)
  105. Species Leptogorgia agassizii (Verrill, 1864) accepted as Pacifigorgia agassizii (Verrill, 1864) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  106. Species Leptogorgia ampla Verrill, 1864 accepted as Eugorgia ampla (Verrill, 1864) (unaccepted > superseded combination, original combination)
  107. Species Leptogorgia ampla (Verrill, 1864) accepted as Eugorgia ampla (Verrill, 1864) (unaccepted > superseded combination, incorrect authority)
  108. Species Leptogorgia angolana Grasshoff, 1992 accepted as Filigorgia angolana (Grasshoff, 1992) (unaccepted > superseded combination, original combination)
  109. Species Leptogorgia arenata (Valenciennes, 1846) accepted as Pacifigorgia arenata (Valenciennes, 1846) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  110. Species Leptogorgia aurantiaca (Valenciennes, 1855) accepted as Echinogorgia aurantiaca (Valenciennes, 1855) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  111. Species Leptogorgia aurata J.S. Thomson, 1916 accepted as Leptogorgia gilchristi (Hickson, 1904) (synonym)
  112. Species Leptogorgia australiensis Ridley, 1884 accepted as Pseudopterogorgia australiensis (Ridley, 1884) (unaccepted > superseded combination, original combination)
  113. Species Leptogorgia beringi Nutting, 1912 accepted as Calcigorgia beringi (Nutting, 1912) (unaccepted > superseded combination, original combination)
  114. Species Leptogorgia bianci (von Koch, 1882) accepted as Leptogorgia sarmentosa (Esper, 1791) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  115. Species Leptogorgia biflabellum Pax & Müller, 1956 accepted as Filigorgia sanguinolenta (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  116. Species Leptogorgia boryana Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857 accepted as Ellisella ceratophyta (Linnaeus, 1758) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  117. Species Leptogorgia cabofalsoi (Stiasny, 1939) accepted as Leptogorgia viminalis (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  118. Species Leptogorgia carolinensis Verrill, 1872 accepted as Leptogorgia hebes Verrill, 1869 (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  119. Species Leptogorgia cauliculus Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857 accepted as Leptogorgia viminalis (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  120. Species Leptogorgia cauliculus (Valenciennes, 1855) accepted as Leptogorgia cauliculus Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857 accepted as Leptogorgia viminalis (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > nomen nudum)
  121. Species Leptogorgia cribrum (Valenciennes, 1846) accepted as Pacifigorgia cribrum (Valenciennes, 1846) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  122. Species Leptogorgia crista (Möbius, 1861) accepted as Leptogorgia palma (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  123. Species Leptogorgia daniana (Verrill, 1868) accepted as Eugorgia daniana Verrill, 1868 (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  124. Species Leptogorgia dartevellei Stiasny, 1939 accepted as Filigorgia sanguinolenta (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  125. Species Leptogorgia dioxys Bielschowsky in Kükenthal, 1919 accepted as Leptogorgia varians (W. Koch, 1886) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  126. Species Leptogorgia divergens Studer, 1878 accepted as Euplexaura divergens (Studer, 1878) (unaccepted > superseded combination, original combination)
  127. Species Leptogorgia eximia (Verrill, 1868) accepted as Pacifigorgia eximia (Verrill, 1868) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  128. Species Leptogorgia flammea (Ellis & Solander, 1786) accepted as Leptogorgia palma (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  129. Species Leptogorgia flavida Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860 accepted as Leptogorgia dubia Kükenthal, 1924 (junior secondary homonym of Gorgonia flavida Lamarck, 1816)
  130. Species Leptogorgia formosa Nutting, 1910 accepted as Pseudopterogorgia formosa (Nutting, 1910) (unaccepted > superseded combination, original combination)
  131. Species Leptogorgia gabunensis Stiasny, 1951 accepted as Filigorgia sanguinolenta (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  132. Species Leptogorgia gonzagai Stiasny, 1937 accepted as Leptogorgia sarmentosa (Esper, 1791) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  133. Species Leptogorgia gruveli (Stiasny, 1936) accepted as Leptogorgia viminalis (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  134. Species Leptogorgia guineensis Grasshoff, 1988 accepted as Filigorgia guineensis (Grasshoff, 1988) (original combination)
  135. Species Leptogorgia haliotrephes Pax & Müller, 1956 accepted as Filigorgia sanguinolenta (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  136. Species Leptogorgia irramosa (Grieg, 1887) accepted as Callistephanus rosea (Grieg, 1887) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  137. Species Leptogorgia longiramosa Kükenthal, 1924 accepted as Leptogorgia viminalis (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  138. Species Leptogorgia lusitanica Stiasny, 1937 accepted as Leptogorgia sarmentosa (Esper, 1791) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  139. Species Leptogorgia machielsi Stiasny, 1939 accepted as Filigorgia sanguinolenta (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  140. Species Leptogorgia maghrebensis (Stiasny, 1936) accepted as Leptogorgia viminalis (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  141. Species Leptogorgia media (Verrill, 1864) accepted as Pacifigorgia media (Verrill, 1864) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  142. Species Leptogorgia moandaensis Pax & Müller, 1956 accepted as Leptogorgia schoutedeni Stiasny, 1939 accepted as Filigorgia schoutedeni (Stiasny, 1939) (synonym)
  143. Species Leptogorgia monodi Stiasny, 1937 accepted as Leptogorgia ruberrima (W. Koch, 1886) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  144. Species Leptogorgia obscura Bielschowsky, 1918 (unaccepted > nomen nudum, described in Kükenthal, 1919)
  145. Species Leptogorgia occidafricana (Stiasny, 1936) accepted as Leptogorgia viminalis (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  146. Species Leptogorgia ornata (Pfeffer, 1887) accepted as Filigorgia sanguinolenta (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym, uncertain synonym)
  147. Species Leptogorgia panamensis (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864) accepted as Eugorgia panamensis (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864) (changed combination)
  148. Species Leptogorgia parva Bielschowsky, 1918 (unaccepted > nomen nudum, described in Kükenthal, 1919)
  149. Species Leptogorgia peruana Verrill, 1868 accepted as Leptogorgia peruviana (Verrill, 1868) (unjustified emendation)
  150. Species Leptogorgia petechizans (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > nomen nudum)
  151. Species Leptogorgia pinnaeformis Stiasny, 1951 accepted as Filigorgia sanguinolenta (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  152. Species Leptogorgia polignaci Stiasny, 1940 accepted as Filigorgia sanguinolenta (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  153. Species Leptogorgia pourtalesii (Deichmann, 1936) accepted as Swiftia pourtalesii Deichmann, 1936 (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  154. Species Leptogorgia pulchra Verrill, 1870 accepted as Pacifigorgia pulchra (Verrill, 1870) (unaccepted > superseded combination, original combination)
  155. Species Leptogorgia pumicea (Valenciennes, 1855) accepted as Leptogorgia punicea (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857) (misspelling, incorrect authority)
  156. Species Leptogorgia puniacea (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857) accepted as Leptogorgia punicea (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857) (lapsus calami)
  157. Species Leptogorgia purpureomaculata Stiasny, 1936 accepted as Leptogorgia albipunctata Stiasny, 1936 (synonym)
  158. Species Leptogorgia radula (Möbius, 1861) accepted as Filigorgia sanguinolenta (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  159. Species Leptogorgia ramulus (Valenciennes, 1855) accepted as Leptogorgia ramulus (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857) (unaccepted > nomen nudum)
  160. Species Leptogorgia ridouri (Stiasny, 1937) accepted as Filigorgia ridouri Stiasny, 1937 accepted as Filigorgia riodouroi Stiasny, 1937 (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  161. Species Leptogorgia riodouroi (Stiasny, 1937) accepted as Filigorgia riodouroi Stiasny, 1937 (changed combination)
  162. Species Leptogorgia robusta Verrill, 1870 accepted as Filigorgia sanguinolenta (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  163. Species Leptogorgia rosea (Lamarck, 1815) accepted as Leptogorgia viminalis (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  164. Species Leptogorgia rutila (Verrill, 1868) accepted as Pacifigorgia rutila (Verrill, 1868) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  165. Species Leptogorgia sanguinolenta (Pallas, 1766) accepted as Filigorgia sanguinolenta (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  166. Species Leptogorgia schoutedeni Stiasny, 1939 accepted as Filigorgia schoutedeni (Stiasny, 1939) (original combination)
  167. Species Leptogorgia senegalensis Stiasny, 1939 accepted as Leptogorgia dakarensis Stiasny, 1939 (synonym)
  168. Species Leptogorgia setubalensis Stiasny, 1937 accepted as Leptogorgia sarmentosa (Esper, 1791) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  169. Species Leptogorgia stenobrochis (Valenciennes, 1846) accepted as Pacifigorgia stenobrochis (Valenciennes, 1846) (unaccepted > superseded combination)
  170. Species Leptogorgia torresia Wright & Studer, 1889 accepted as Pseudopterogorgia torresia (Wright & Studer, 1889) (original combination)
  171. Species Leptogorgia trinidadensis Hickson, 1928 accepted as Leptogorgia setacea (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  172. Species Leptogorgia webbiana Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857 accepted as Leptogorgia viminalis (Pallas, 1766) (unaccepted > junior subjective synonym)
  173. Species Leptogorgia zacae Deichmann accepted as Pacifigorgia senta Breedy & Guzman, 2003 (unpublished museum catalog name)
  174. Species Leptogorgia taboguilla (Hickson, 1928) represented as Leptogorgia taboguillae (Hickson, 1928) (Misspelling present in some publications)
  175. Species Leptogorgia caryi Verrill, 1868 (uncertain > nomen dubium)
  176. Species Leptogorgia chevalieri Stiasny (uncertain > unassessed)
  177. Species Leptogorgia densa Philippi, 1892 (uncertain > unassessed)
  178. Species Leptogorgia miniacea (Esper, 1791) (uncertain > unassessed)
  179. Species Leptogorgia ochracea Thomson & Henderson, 1906 (uncertain > unassessed)
  180. Species Leptogorgia purpurea (Esper) (uncertain > unassessed)
  181. Species Leptogorgia rosea Philippi, 1892 (uncertain > unassessed)
  182. Species Leptogorgia studeri Verrill, 1912 (uncertain > unassessed)
  183. Species Leptogorgia subcompressa Philippi, 1892 (uncertain > unassessed)
marine, fresh, terrestrial
Milne Edwards H,. (1857). Histoire naturelle des coralliaires, ou polypes proprement dits. 1. <em>Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris.</em> 326 pp., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/12045211
page(s): 163 [details]  OpenAccess publication 
McFadden, C.S.; Cordeiro, R.; Williams, G.; van Ofwegen, L. (2024). World List of Octocorallia. Leptogorgia Milne Edwards, 1857. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: https://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=125302 on 2024-05-25
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2006-09-14 06:45:32Z
changed
Martinez, Olga
2010-09-17 05:35:46Z
checked
2021-06-13 18:27:50Z
changed
2021-06-19 21:34:25Z
changed

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


original description Milne Edwards H,. (1857). Histoire naturelle des coralliaires, ou polypes proprement dits. 1. <em>Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris.</em> 326 pp., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/12045211
page(s): 163 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Lophogorgia Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857) Milne Edwards H,. (1857). Histoire naturelle des coralliaires, ou polypes proprement dits. 1. <em>Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris.</em> 326 pp., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/12045211
page(s): 167 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Litigorgia Verrill, 1868) Verrill, A.E. (1868-1870). Notes on Radiata in the Museum of Yale College, with descriptions of new genera and species. No. 6. Review of the corals and polyps of the west coast of America. <em>Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Science.</em> 1: 377-558, pl. 6., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/27729638 [details]   

original description  (of Gorgonia (Litigorgia) Verrill, 1868) Verrill, A.E. (1868). Critical remarks on halcyonoid polyps in the Museum of Yale College, with descriptions of new genera. <em>The American Journal of Science and Arts (Series 2).</em> 45: 411-416., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/36447997 [details]   

context source (PeRMS) Cortés, J.; Enochs, I.C.; Sibaja-Cordero, J.; Hernández, L.; Alvarado, J.J.; Breedy, O.; Cruz-Barraza, J.A.; Esquivel-Garrote, O.; Fernández-García, C.; Hermosillo, A.; Kaiser, K.L.; Medina-Rosas, P.; Morales-Ramírez, Á.; Pacheco, C.; Pérez-Matus, A.; Reyes-Bonilla, H.; Riosmena-Rodríguez, R.; Sánchez-Noguera, C.; Wieters, E.A.; Zapata, F.A. (2016). Marine Biodiversity of Eastern Tropical Pacific Coral Reefs. Chap. 7, pp. 203-250 <i>in:</i> Coral Reefs of the Eastern Tropical Pacific. , available online at https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-7499-4_7 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

basis of record van Ofwegen, L.; Grasshoff, M.; van der Land, J. (2001). Octocorallia (excl. Pennatulacea), <B><I>in</I></B>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). <i>European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,</i> 50: pp. 104-105 (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Neave, Sheffield Airey. (1939-1996). Nomenclator Zoologicus vol. 1-10 Online. <em>[Online Nomenclator Zoologicus at Checklistbank. Ubio link has gone].</em> , available online at https://www.checklistbank.org/dataset/126539/about [details]   

additional source Williams, G.C. (1992). Biogeography of the octocorallian coelenterate fauna of southern Africa. <em>Biol. J. Linn. Soc.</em> 46: 351-401. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Bayer, F. M. (1996). The Antarctic genus Callozostron and its relationship to Primnoella (Octocorallia: Gorgonacea: Primnoidae). <em>Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington.</em> 109(1): 150-203., available online at https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/34644751
page(s): 193 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Hermanlimianto, M.I.Y.T.; van Ofwegen, L.P. (2006). A new species of Astrogorgia (Coelenterata: Octocorallia: Plexauridae) from Bali. <em>Zoologische Mededelingen Leiden.</em> 80-4(10): 103-108.
page(s): 104 [details]   

additional source Breedy, O.; Guzman, H. M. (2007). A revision of the genus Leptogorgia Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857 (Coelenterata: Octocorallia: Gorgoniidae) in the eastern Pacific. <em>Zootaxa.</em> 1419(1): 1-90., available online at https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1419.1.1 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Williams, G.C. (2000). Two new genera of soft corals (Anthozoa: Alcyoniidae) from South Africa, with a discussion of diversity and endemism in the Southern African octocorallian fauna. <em>Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences.</em> 52(6): 65-75.
page(s): 71, 72 [details]   

additional source Williams, G. C.; Breedy, O. (2004). The Panamic Gorgonian Genus Pacifigorgia (Octocorallia: Gorgoniidae) in the Galápagos Archipelago, with Descriptions of Three New Species. <em>Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences.</em> 55(3): 55-88., available online at http://www.archive.org/download/proceedingso551122004cali/proceedingso551122004cali.pdf
page(s): 56, 57 [details]   

additional source Kükenthal, W. (1924). Coelenterata: Gorgonaria. in: Das Tierreich (Eine Zusammenstellung und Kennzeichnung der rezenten Tierformen). 47. 478 pp.
page(s): 323-325 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Bayer, F. M.; Grasshoff, M. (1995). Two new species of the gorgonacean genus Ctenocella (Coelenterata: Anthozoa, Octocorallia) from deep reefs in the western Atlantic. <em>Bulletin of marine science.</em> 56(2), 625-652., available online at https://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/umrsmas/bullmar/1995/00000056/00000002/art00019
page(s): 625 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Grasshoff, M. (1992). Die Flachwasser-Gorgonarien von Europa und Westafrika (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). <em>Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Band 149.</em> Frankfurt a. M., 135 pp.
page(s): 54 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Breedy, O. (2001). A new species of Pacifigorgia from the eastern Pacific (Coelenterata: Octocorallia: Gorgoniidae). [Una nueva especie de Pacifigorgia del Pacífico oriental (Coelenterata: Octocorallia: Gorgoniidae)]. <em>Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington.</em> 10, 181-187.
page(s): 182, 186 [details]   

additional source van Ofwegen, L. P.; Hoeksema, B. W. (2001). Astrogorgia bayeri, a new gorgonian octocoral species from South Sulawesi (Coelenterata: Octocorallia: Plexauridae). <em>Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington.</em> 10, 66-70.
page(s): 70 [details]   

additional source Deichmann, E. (1936). The Alcyonaria of the western part of the Atlantic Ocean. <em>Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College.</em> 53: 1-317, plates 1-37., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/4363633
page(s): 176, 184-185, Plate 17, 19 [details]   

additional source Williams, G. C. (1989). A review of recent research on the sublittoral coral reefs of northern Natal with a provisional assessment of findings regarding the distribution of octocorals on Two-Mile Reef, Sodwana Bay. South African Journal of Science, 85, 140-141
page(s): 141 [details]   

additional source Hickson, S. J. (1930). On the classification of the Alcyonaria. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, XIV, 229-252
page(s): 248 [details]   

additional source Smith, P. J.; McVeagh, S. M.; Mingoia, J. T.; France, S. C. (2004). Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in deep-sea bamboo coral (Keratoisidinae) species in the southwest and northwest Pacific Ocean. Marine Biology, 144, 253-261
page(s): 257 [details]   

additional source Bayer, F. M. (1958). Further remarks on the geographical distribution of Gorgoniidae. <em>Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences.</em> 48(12): 394-396.
page(s): 394, 395 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Williams, G. C. (1992). The Alcyonacea of southern Africa. Gorgonian octocorals (Coelenterata, Anthozoa). <em>Annals of the South African Museum.</em> 101(8): 181-296, Fig. 1., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/40683324
page(s): 287 [details]   

additional source Williams, G. C. (1989). A provisional annotated list of octocorallian coelenterates occurring on the sublittoral coral reefs at Sodwana Bay and Kosi Bay, northern Natal, with a key to the genera. South African Journal of Science, 85, 141-144
page(s): 142 [details]   
 
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