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RAS taxon details

Umbellula Gray, 1870

128499  (

marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
Gray, J.E. (1870). Catalogue of sea-pens or Pennatulariidae in the collection of the British Museum / by J.E. Gray. , available online at
page(s): 39 [details]   
McFadden, C.; Cordeiro, R.; Williams, G.; van Ofwegen, L. (2022). World List of Octocorallia. Umbellula Gray, 1870. Accessed through: RAS (Eds.) (2022) Register of Antarctic Species at: on 2023-01-31
RAS (Eds.) (2023). Register of Antarctic Species. Umbellula Gray, 1870. Accessed at: on 2023-01-31
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
2005-07-27 12:57:38Z
2019-06-25 05:41:35Z
2019-12-07 22:54:29Z

original description Gray, J.E. (1870). Catalogue of sea-pens or Pennatulariidae in the collection of the British Museum / by J.E. Gray. , available online at
page(s): 39 [details]   

basis of record Williams, G.C.; van der Land, J. (2001). Octocorallia - Pennatulacea. <em>in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification.</em> Collection Patrimoines Naturels 50: pp. 105-106. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Williams, G. Pennatulacea checklist for ERMS2.  [details]   

additional source Williams, G.C. (1992). Biogeography of the octocorallian coelenterate fauna of southern Africa. <em>Biol. J. Linn. Soc.</em> 46: 351-401. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Williams, G.C. (1999). Index Pennatulacea: annotated bibliography and indexes of the Sea Pens (Coelenterata: Octocorallia) of the World 1469-1999. <em>Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci.</em> 51(2): 19-103, 1 fig., 14 plates. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Liu, J.Y. [Ruiyu] (ed.). (2008). Checklist of marine biota of China seas. <em>China Science Press.</em> 1267 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Cairns, S.D.; Gershwin, L.; Brook, F.J.; Pugh, P.; Dawson, E.W.; Ocaña O.V.; Vervoort, W.; Williams, G.; Watson, J.E.; Opresko, D.M.; Schuchert, P.; Hine, P.M.; Gordon, D.P.; Campbell, H.J.; Wright, A.J.; Sánchez, J.A.; Fautin, D.G. (2009). Phylum Cnidaria: corals, medusae, hydroids, myxozoans. <em>in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia.</em> pp. 59-101., available online at [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Bayer, F.M. (1961). The shallow-water Octocorallia of the West Indian region. A manual for marine biologists. <em>Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and Other Caribbean Islands.</em> 12:1-373, pls. 1-23., available online at
page(s): 313 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Williams, G. C. (1995). Revision of the pennatulacean genus Sarcoptilus (Coelenterata: Octocorallia), with descriptions of three new species from southern Australia. <em>Records of the South Australian Museum.</em> 28(1), 13-32.
page(s): 14 [details]   

additional source López-González, P. J.; Williams, G. C. (2002). A new genus and species of sea pen (Octocorallia : Pennatulacea : Stachyptilidae) from the Antarctic Peninsula. <em>Invertebrate Systematics.</em> 16(6): 919-929., available online at
page(s): 925, 926, 927 [details]   

additional source Williams, G. C. (1997). A new genus and species of nephtheid soft coral (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) from the western Pacific Ocean, and a discussion of convergence with several deep-sea benthic organisms. <em>Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences.</em> 49(12): 423-437.
page(s): 423, 436, 437 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Thomson, J.A.; Henderson, W.D. (1906). An account of the alcyonarians collected by the Royal Indian Marine survey ship 'Investigator' in the Indian Ocean. I. The alcyonarians of the deep sea. <em>Trustees of the Indian Museum, University of Aberdeen.</em> 1-128, plates 1-7., available online at
page(s): 102-107 [details]   

additional source Hickson, S.J. (1916). The Pennatulacea of the Siboga Expedition with a general survey of the order. <em>Siboga Expeditie.</em> 14: 1-265, plates 1-10., available online at
page(s): 116-126 [details]   

additional source Williams, G. C. (1997). Preliminary assessment of the phylogeny of Pennatulacea (Anthozoa: Octocorallia), with a reevaluation of Ediacaran frond-like fossils, and a synopsis of the history of evolutionary thought regarding the sea pens. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Coelenterate Biology, 497-509
page(s): 497, 498, 499, 500, 501, 502, 503 [details]   

additional source Megina, C.; Conradi, M.; Piraino, S. (2003). Biodiversity, life cycles, and reproductive biology of deep-sea cnidarians. Berichte zur Polarforschung, 470, 108-112
page(s): 110 [details]   

additional source Bayer, F. M. (1998). Umbellula Cuvier, [1797] (Cnidaria, Anthozoa): conserved as the correct original spelling, and corrections made to the entries relating to Umbellularia Lamarck, 1801 on the Official Lists and Indexes of Names in Zoology. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 55(3): 187-188
page(s): 187 [details]   

additional source Belcik, F. P. (1977). A distribution study of the Octocorallia of Oregon. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 24(1-3): 49-52
page(s): 51 [details]   

additional source Williams, G. C.; Rogers, J. (1989). Photographic evidence of bathyal octocorals from the Cape Basin. South African Journal of Science, 85, 191-192
page(s): 192 [details]   

additional source Verrill, A. E. (1922). The Alcyonaria of the Canadian Arctic Expedition, 1913-1918, with a revision of some other Canadian genera and species. Report on the Canadian Arctic Expedition 1913-1918, 8, G, G3-G87, available online at
page(s): 40 [details]   
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
Umbellula sp., 2549 m Gulf of Mexico

Image courtesy of NOAA Okeanos Explorer Program, Gulf of Mexico 2012 Expedition.

Umbellula encrinus - close-up
 Umbellula encrinus ...
[image from typetaxon]

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