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RAS taxon details

Virgularia Lamarck, 1816

128503  (

marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
Lamarck, J.-B. M. de. (1816). Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres. Tome second. Paris: Verdière, 568 pp., available online at
page(s): 429-430 [details]   
McFadden, C.; Cordeiro, R.; Williams, G.; van Ofwegen, L. (2022). World List of Octocorallia. Virgularia Lamarck, 1816. Accessed through: RAS (Eds.) (2022) Register of Antarctic Species at: on 2023-03-31
RAS (Eds.) (2023). Register of Antarctic Species. Virgularia Lamarck, 1816. Accessed at: on 2023-03-31
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
2005-07-27 12:57:38Z
2019-06-25 05:41:35Z

original description Lamarck, J.-B. M. de. (1816). Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres. Tome second. Paris: Verdière, 568 pp., available online at
page(s): 429-430 [details]   

basis of record Williams, G.C.; van der Land, J. (2001). Octocorallia - Pennatulacea. <em>in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification.</em> Collection Patrimoines Naturels 50: pp. 105-106. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Williams, G. Pennatulacea checklist for ERMS2.  [details]   

additional source Williams, G.C. (1992). Biogeography of the octocorallian coelenterate fauna of southern Africa. <em>Biol. J. Linn. Soc.</em> 46: 351-401. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Williams, G.C. (1999). Index Pennatulacea: annotated bibliography and indexes of the Sea Pens (Coelenterata: Octocorallia) of the World 1469-1999. <em>Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci.</em> 51(2): 19-103, 1 fig., 14 plates. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Liu, J.Y. [Ruiyu] (ed.). (2008). Checklist of marine biota of China seas. <em>China Science Press.</em> 1267 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Kükenthal, W. (1915). Pennatularia. Das Tierreich. 43: 1-132., available online at
page(s): 71-80 [details]   

additional source Williams, G.C. (2000). Two new genera of soft corals (Anthozoa: Alcyoniidae) from South Africa, with a discussion of diversity and endemism in the Southern African octocorallian fauna. <em>Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences.</em> 52(6): 65-75.
page(s): 71, 72 [details]   

additional source López-González, P. J.; Williams, G. C. (2002). A new genus and species of sea pen (Octocorallia : Pennatulacea : Stachyptilidae) from the Antarctic Peninsula. <em>Invertebrate Systematics.</em> 16(6): 919-929., available online at
page(s): 926 [details]   

additional source Williams, G.C. (1990). The Pennatulacea of southern Africa (Coelenterata, Anthozoa). <em>Annals of the South African Museum. Annale van die Suid-Afrikaanse Museum.</em> 99:31-119., available online at
page(s): 40, 94, 111 [details]   

additional source Utinomi, H.; Harada, E. (1973). Rediscovery of an enigmatic octocoral, Pseudogorgia godeffroyi Kolliker, from southern Australia and a discussion on its systematic position. <em>Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory.</em> 20: 111-132.
page(s): 125 [details]   

additional source Hickson, S.J. (1916). The Pennatulacea of the Siboga Expedition with a general survey of the order. <em>Siboga Expeditie.</em> 14: 1-265, plates 1-10., available online at
page(s): 148-160 [details]   

additional source Kölliker, A. von. (1870). Anatomisch-systematische Beschreibung der Alcyonarien. Erste Abtheilung: Die Pennatuliden. <em>Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft.</em> 7: 487-602., available online at
page(s): 522-529 [details]   

additional source Deichmann, E. (1936). The Alcyonaria of the western part of the Atlantic Ocean. <em>Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College.</em> 53: 1-317, plates 1-37., available online at
page(s): 11, 274-275 [details]   

additional source Bayer, F.M. (1955). Contributions to the nomenclature, systematics, and morphology of the Octocorallia. <em>Proceedings of the United States National Museum.</em> 105: 207-220, plates 1-8., available online at
page(s): 217, Pl. 7 [details]   

additional source Williams, G. C. (1995). The enigmatic sea pen genus Gyrophyllum - a phylogenetic reassessment and description of G. sibogae from Tasmanian waters (Coelenterata: Octocorallia). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 48(15): 315-327
page(s): 322, 325 [details]   

additional source Williams, G. C. (1997). Preliminary assessment of the phylogeny of Pennatulacea (Anthozoa: Octocorallia), with a reevaluation of Ediacaran frond-like fossils, and a synopsis of the history of evolutionary thought regarding the sea pens. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Coelenterate Biology, 497-509
page(s): 498, 499, 501, 502, 503, 505 [details]   

additional source Broch, H. (1958). Octocorals. Part I. Pennatularians. Discovery Reports, XXIX, 245-280, plates XI, XII
page(s): 273 [details]   

additional source Belcik, F. P. (1977). A distribution study of the Octocorallia of Oregon. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 24(1-3): 49-52
page(s): 51 [details]   

additional source Bayer, F. M. (1950). A new species of the gorgonacean genus Ainigmaptilon Dean (Coelenterata: Octocorallia). Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 40(9): 295-298
page(s): 295 [details]   

additional source Imahara, Y. (2006). Preliminary report on the alcyonacean and pennatulacean octocorals collected by the natural history research of the Sagami Sea. Memoirs of the National Science Museum (Tokyo) [Kokuritsu Kagaku Hakubutsukan], 40, 91-101
page(s): 101 [details]   
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