Taxonomy of six terebellids genera is discussed. It is shown that Amphitritides, Neoamphitrite and Paramphitrite are junior synonyms of Amphitrite; the difference between Amphitrite, Terebella and Eupolymnia is illustrated. The review of a substantial number of specimens of 10 species of Amphitrite known from European waters has allowed for amendments of species descriptions and updates of species distributions. Two new species are described: A. rzhavskyi sp.n. from the Mediterranean Sea and Scotland, UK and A. buzhinskaje sp.n. from the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea. A. rzhavskyi sp.n. has three pairs of branchiae with cirriform filaments, 17 thoracic chaetigers, four pairs of nephridia and no eyespots. A. buzhinskaje sp.n. has three pairs of arborescent branchiae, 22–23 thoracic chaetigers and all abdominal neuropodia with a single row of uncini. It is proposed to accept A. antarctica Monro, 1936 as species rather than subspecies of A. affinis. One more species from the Arctic and North Pacific is found but not named due the lack of type materials of A. cirrata, the most similar species. The taxonomic weight of characters used for species definitions within Amphitrite is discussed. It is shown that species range is a good taxonomic character. A comprehensive identification key to all 14 European species of Amphitrite is provided.